tressiemc

some of us are brave

Just How Krazy is Kanye? Ethnographic Lessons. No, Really.

Kanye West has been called many things. Most of them are euphemisms for the very prejudicial and problematic “crazy” designation.

I’m on a self-imposed vacation. I am only doing things for fun. When commentary about the latest Kanye “episode” crossed my social media, I decided to indulge. As I watched Kanye’s interview on Sway’s radio show I found myself doing a little discourse analysis. Because that, apparently, is my idea of fun.

By the twitter comments I expected some raving man-beast to be foaming at the mouth. Instead, by minute 15 I started thinking I understood where Kanye was coming from. That is odd enough considering I’m inclined to think Kanye, the world’s greatest artist ever, is a wee bit over-hyped. He makes nice beats. But, I digress.

In the final analysis, the Kanye interview has a few take-aways. Some of those take-aways are even relevant to research! One, language out of context can look really strange. That is why I prefer to triangulate content analysis with discourse analysis and something I call episodic analysis. Out of context Kanye’s “bizarre” allusions to bad history like, “this is how the French Revolutoin got started!” and “a lot of slaves made money to buy they freedom!” seem, well, “bizarre”. In context, they seem like something else.

Two, discourse occurs between people. There are three people in that video, two visible and one off-camera producer of some sort. If Kanye is being Kanye Krazy we might want to interrogate all the people in the room. That’s part of that episodic analysis I do in qualitative research. When there is a significant emotional oeuvre, I isolate it in transcription and audio data. I analyze what came immediately before, during and immediately after the emotional change. What questions prompted the change? Was there a verbal or non-verbal cue from the interviewer? Did the environment change in some way? The change is part of the data. I found this immensely important in my interviews with students in for-profit colleges.

Three, there is a point at which we can write a script for a person and no matter what they do, the behavior will be interpreted through that script. That’s why I say sometimes it is best to cut your losses when your script has been so rigidly drawn that no matter what you do, it will be defined by important stakeholders as failure.

After watching the whole interview, I do not know if Kanye is Krazy but I do know that you probably don’t either. Not from this interview, anyway. Because what I saw in the interview was a man who perceives himself as an artist (Ok, fine, a genius artist; wherefore art thou ego) being forced, by the interviewer, into the role of pundit and teacher.

Kanye resists because he is not comfortable teaching. Which he probably shouldn’t be. Teaching takes training, formal or informal. Kanye is less resistant to being a pundit but he probably should resist. Unlike others who reduce criticisms of Kanye, the superstar, to being a child or a buffoon I am assessing his skill set. Kanye is not a good extemporaneous speaker, doesn’t seem inclined to become a good prepared speaker, and is not good at communicating his ideas. And that’s fine. We have enough pundits. He need not be one. He already has a job as superstar.

But that is beside this point. Kanye’s blow up, in context and considering all the persons in the discourse, is not all that strange. You ask men about sensitive subjects like money and you may as well be asking them about their sexual prowess. Hegemonic masculinities may be unfortunate and regrettable, but Kanye’s emotional response isn’t anymore messed up than any other man’s.

A few examples of these three take-aways:

What do people think is so strange about this particular interview? At about minute 17:01 Kanye proclaims that he is “Warhol. I am Shakespeare in the flesh!”. That strikes some folks as bizarre. Out of context, as I read it on Twitter, it sure seemed odd. But then I watched the actual discourse. In context, at about 16:10 the interviewer, Sway, continues to hammer at Kanye about how his clothing deal works and why he won’t just “do it for himself” instead of relying on dominant [white] benefactors:

That comment is about money. Discussing money is culturally relative. Indeed, whether you talk about money or not is a type of status group signifier. New, gauche moneyed sets can be disparaged for talking too crassly about the price of goods while poor people can be admonished for not disclosing their assets. When Sway interrupts to ask the question, Kanye has been talking about how, “powerful as [his] voice is Lucia* still cuts [his] checks”. He’s commenting on discovering, that even with fame and money, he is still in an employee arrangement. That is a commentary on capital, ownership, and commodification of labor in an era of celebrity as an exchange economy. It is a nuanced, difficult conversation to have. It takes Marxists decades to talk about it. And even when most Marxists do have the language, it is so dense as to be unintelligible to most people.

It’s a huge concept: how money isn’t the same as wealth and how fame isn’t the same as power. And Kanye is not good at having. Let’s get that out of the way. He’s not particularly eloquent off-the-cuff. So he’s talking about this big concept, bumbling it pretty badly, and then Sway asks him repeatedly why he doesn’t just do something different, i.e. better.

And Kanye goes off. In this context though his rant is less rant-y. If talking about money is relative and talking about the division of labor in a global capitalism is hard, then both are equally difficult when you are doing so extemporaneously. Factor in that for men talking about money is a proxy for all manner of things. And Kanye has to admit that he lost “$13 million of [his] own money!” trying to keep his business afloat. He has to talk about losing money. In public. Where some guy is asking him why he didn’t “just” do something else. Sounds rough to me. That might explain Kanye’s refutation of Sway’s judgement, “you ain’t got the answers!” Meaning, you are not superior enough to me to judge how I lost money on this business deal. (And seriously Sway’s blasé “so you don’t have the money to do it. That’s your answer!” would get him kicked in the sternum by many people, in many contexts).

The other thing I noted, which comes up a great deal in qualitative interviews, are Kanye’s verbal and non-verbal utterances. Usually, we understand these as “uh” and “yeah” and guttural sounds. Many qualitative researchers discount these when they code transcripts. For thematic coding that might make sense. But qualitative analysis, to me, is its best when it does not just count codes but (de)constructs meaning. For that it is important to code what is said and what is not said.

Kanye’s utterances are not the typical “uhs” and whatnots. He has no problem stringing together long chains of words. But, as has been noted, the strings often get twisted in ways that make him seem bizarre or childish. What if the word strings aren’t functioning as linear discourse but as utterances? Kanye’s body language makes this case. Look at him at about 17:21 when, again, Sway asks him why he doesn’t just “empower himself”.

The word strings become denser and more tangled as Kanye’s body language ramps up. The frenetic energy that often comes out in “uhs” and “indeeds” (for the academic conference set) is exactly like what Kanye is enacting when he starts going on about slaves and the French Revolution. What if the odd asides are the mental breaks people provide themselves verbally to give themselves time to think and process?

Kanye begins to look a bit more normal in that context. He’s being asked hard questions that are, to be fair, bordering on judgmental. He’s doing that live, on-air. He may not be a gifted or trained public speaker. He is thinking about large concepts that can take even trained scholars a great deal of time to process, much less communicate. And so his verbal tic protects him by kicking in, which is why we develop them.

But Kanye’s response sets the interviewer off as the energy reads like a challenge, perhaps. But maybe this also puts the interviewer on the defensive because by this point Kanye, The Character has already been written. Like worldviews, characters can help us save time and cognitive discomfort by pre-sorting random information into a framework that we already understand. The problem, of course, is when the point of the exchange is to understand what you do not already understand.

Here, as in qualitative research, is where a good interviewer or a good reader would challenge their preconceived notions about characters and worldviews. That is harder to do than dismissing inarticulate extemporaneous speaking as rambling and decontextualized behavior as bizarre. But, again, it depends on your goal. In research, at least, there is some mutually agreed upon goal: something akin to truth, however relative or differently defined.

In a way I am sad that is not the goal with Kanye, not for of Kanye but for ourselves. I saw a lot in that interview that I see when I interview research participants. People are messy. Messages don’t always choose good messengers. Not everyone has spent decades learning precise language to describe complex feelings and social experiences. And famous producers aren’t teachers and public intellectuals just because we shove a microphone before them and print whatever they say.

Which isn’t to say that Kanye isn’t mentally disturbed as many claim. But is to say that this interview, taken in context, doesn’t appear to be evidence of much besides a bumbling interviewer, a rambling pop star, and an audience who had written the script for a guy playing Kanye before the first minute of the interview ever played.

*This is my hackneyed interpretation of the company name Kanye references repeatedly. I can’t find it on the google machine, meaning I likely have it wrong. Which appropriately signals my cultural capital, ie I ain’t got none. I’m so new money I haven’t made any yet.

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17 comments on “Just How Krazy is Kanye? Ethnographic Lessons. No, Really.

  1. dj/producer (@morpheusjaxen)
    December 2, 2013

    Finally some analysis and commentary that fully understands what is going on not only in Kanye’s mind but the interviewer’s mind and the underlying subjects at hand. People are so quick to call him crazy because it sounds cool. I show empathy because he is saying a lot of things that I feel right now. He has a real message, once he learns more about himself and the arena he is trying to get into, this guy is going to create a company that is going to blow every one minds away.

  2. John
    November 30, 2013

    One way to understand verbal dysfluencies and the “um”s and pauses could be through Jane Hill’s Bakhtinian analysis in “The Voices of Don Gabriel” article. Such dysfluencies are signs of the coordination of multiple voicings within speech. You are right on in seeing Kanye’s speech in terms of its pragmatics rather than reference (the thematic coding usually focused on by normative qualitative research).

    • tressiemc22
      December 1, 2013

      Thank you for that citation! I see it cited, tracked back to book that included it, hope to get to reading it soon.

    • tressiemc22
      December 1, 2013

      And I should add this is not my primary area of research, much less expertise. I generally approach through soc methods but I am already intrigued by the opening chapter of “The Dialogic Emergence of Culture”. Should I fall down this culture studies wormhole how should I properly assign blame to you? :)

      • John
        December 1, 2013

        Well, you can blame me as a linguistic anthropologist rather than a cult stud (the probable geneologies are ethnography of communication—>modern linguistic anthropology through Bakhtin/Voloshinov, Goffman (there’s your soc). Although he’s prolix, Michael Silverstein’s analysis of politics and language in his free-to-the-reader pdf offers another way of looking at speech events like a crazy interview that also grounds the interpretive exercise in empiricism to a degree you may be surprised by–still, an accessible model of one way to go about it: http://prickly-paradigm.com/sites/default/files/paradigm6.pdf And remember it’s fun on the other side of that wormhole ;-)

  3. xbot
    November 27, 2013

    Regarding the “Lucia” reference, I believe he means Lucian Grainge, CEO of Universal Music Group. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucian_Grainge

  4. rumegem
    November 27, 2013

    Great read!!

    (Not v important but Kanye’s referring to Lucian Grainge CEO of Universal Music Group. Universal is the parent company of Island Def Jam & G.O.O.D. music, Kanye’s label. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucian_Grainge. The rest of the folks are fashion label owners as he stated)

  5. Kanye is not mentally disturbed. Half the people who say that don’t actually believe it to be true, or maybe some do; not me. What they/I am saying is that he’s crazy to expect handouts from people, especially from the greats, just so he can achieve greatness himself.

    You’re right though. This is all about insecurity and pride. At 18:26 Kanye finally gives sway an answer saying “I lost the money because I didn’t have the knowledge of how to do it the right way.” which is great to hear. Knowing why something didn’t work, gives you the insight as to what might work. In this case it’s knowledge. Kanye knows this. He knows that he doesn’t have the knowledge. The problem is that he doesn’t have the time to start from the bottom in another field, so he must rely on accomplished experts to help him realize his dreams. He wants to accomplish varying forms of greatness, in music, in fashion, in film, etc. to prove that his creative prowess is just as great as he’s been preaching. And when the greats don’t back him, this is what you get.

    Very sad.

    • tressiemc22
      December 2, 2013

      I am not inclined to disagree with read of Kanye’s struggle with understanding limits of his power at the big table. But I find that is a separate argument than one from he’s so crazy, which is absolutely a narrative out there. The former is about the limits of his language/framework to understand what he’s asking for. The latter was more specific to how people conflate decontextualized comments without perspective to infer the former. It gets convoluted. You may enjoy this on Kanye’s Fanon complex to the former point: http://ourlegaci.com/2013/12/02/kanyes-frantz-fanon-complex/

  6. Phil
    November 27, 2013

    If I didn’t understand at least 35% of the things I hear in conversation, and 85% of the things I overhear on television, as verbal filler on the “um” and “uh” level, I would live in unending terror of my fellow human beings. (One of the reasons that I think business-world cliches catch on and stick around is because they serve as good word-like verbal filler: just babble about “levels” until you remember what it is you were trying to say, and watch the less powerful struggle to interpret your nuggets of brilliance.) So this analysis rings true with me.

    I don’t think I’d want to have a drink with Kanye–I don’t like arrogant money-obsessed braggart alpha males when they’re white and run hedge funds, and I don’t like them in other contexts either–but his musical brilliance can’t seriously be argued against. I wish that were enough for the press.

  7. gabrieleneumann
    November 27, 2013

    I’ve always thought Kanye was very intelligent, just not very eloquent…he has good ideas, he just doesn’t know how to communicate them.

  8. Rafi
    November 27, 2013

    FYI – Lucian Grainge is the head of Universal Music, so the man who cuts Kanye’s music checks. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucian_Grainge

  9. bernasvibe
    November 27, 2013

    I admit I didn’t watch the entire clip..I’ll never forget the now infamous comment Kanye made @ Bush regarding the response after Katrina..I’m from New Orleans & watched with HORROR from California the pathetic response ..Kanye was spot ON..He, like many others, probably needs a good shrink..Many in the business of being a celebrity; won’t admit the madness of being in that world..Dave Chapelle revealed a tiny bit of it when he returned from his speedy exit..That was one of the most truthful public interviews I’ve ever seen a celebrity make.. I like Kanye..I think he’s probably more ‘sane’ that the vast amount of people who think he isn’t

    • literaryvittles
      November 27, 2013

      I agree with most of your analysis here. However, what I think would *really* be a challenge would be attempting to dismantle his most recent “Bound 2″ video. I think that’s much crazier than the interview above!

      • Quibián Salazar (@q_salazar)
        November 28, 2013

        He explained the Bound 2 video on the Breakfast Club interview. It was supposed to be comedic. He was trying to make a video look like those “white trash t-shirts” that someone like Napoleon Dynamite would wear.

  10. Chris A.
    November 27, 2013

    I looooove this post. I’ve been thinking a bit lately about how Kanye is described on social media in response to interviews and his public sightings. And to see a deep analysis of one such interview is great. It’s a joy to read and think about.

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